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Effects of an American Heart Association Diet and Weight Loss on Lipoprotein
Heart Diet Reduces Low-Density-Lipoprotein (LDL) and High-Density-Lipoprotein (HDL)
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Effects of an American Heart Association Diet and Weight Loss on Lipoprotein

The sequential effects of an American Heart Association (AHA) Step 1 diet and subsequent weight loss on lipoprotein lipids in obese postmenopausal women were determined. Subjects followed a AHA Step 1 diet for 2 months, followed by a weight-loss diet (deficit of 1.0-1.5 MJ/d) for 6 months. The AHA diet lowered concentrations of total (7 percent), low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) (6 percent), and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) (14 percent) cholesterol. Weight loss increased plasma triacylglycerol concentrations (9 percent) and increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations (8 percent) compared with changes after the AHA diet, but there were no changes in total or LDL cholesterol. The combined AHA diet and weight-loss interventions lowered triacylglycerol (10 percent) and total (6 percent), LDL (6 percent), and HDL (7 percent) cholesterol. These changes correlated indirectly with the baseline concentration for each lipid. When the women were divided on the basis of initial LDL-cholesterol concentration, the AHA diet and weight-loss interventions reduced triacylglycerol (19 percent), total cholesterol (13 percent), and LDL cholesterol (14 percent) in the women with hypercholesterolemia but not in normocholesterolemic or midly hypercholesterolemic women.

Weight Study Conclusions
Thus, an AHA Step 1 diet and subsequent weight loss improve lipoprotein lipid profiles of obese, postmenopausal women with hypercholesterolemia. However, because it lowers HDL cholesterol, a low-fat diet without substantial weight loss may not be beneficial for improving lipoprotein lipid risk factors for coronary artery disease in obese, postmenopausal women with normal lipid profiles.

Source: Nicklas BJ, Katzel LI, Bunyard LB, Dennis KE, Goldberg AP. Department of Medicine, University of Maryland at Baltimore, USA.

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