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Weight Loss, Cardiovascular (CVD) Risk in Moderately Obese Women
Long Term Effects of Weight Loss on Blood Pressure, Lipids, Glucose and Insulin
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Weight Loss, Cardiovascular (CVD) Risk in Moderately Obese Women

Weight Loss Study Aim
The beneficial effects of weight loss with a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) on cardiovascular risk factors have been reported at the end of energy restriction. As the effects, especially on blood pressure, may not remain constant during weight maintenance, we studied the longer-term effects of weight loss on 24h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP), lipids, glucose and insulin.

Weight Loss Study Design
Prospective study of a 17-week weight loss program containing an eight-week VLCD period and follow-up visit at one-year.

Weight Loss Study Results
In the last week of the VLCD, the mean weight loss was, at the end of the program 15.1 +/- 4.4 kg, and at one-year follow-up 10.7 +/- 7.6 kg. Mean 24 h ABP decreased 8.0/4.6 mmHg (P < 0.001 for both) on the last week of the VLCD, at the end of the weight loss program, the systolic ABP decrease was 4.7 mmHg and diastolic 2.1 mmHg (not statistically significant (NS) vs baseline). At one-year follow-up, the mean systolic ABP decrease was 4.1 mmHg and mean diastolic 3.0 mmHg. Sodium excretion decreased 55 mmol/24 h in the last VLCD week and returned to baseline after that. At the one-year follow-up, beneficial changes, compared with baseline, were observed in mean serum glucose, triglyceride and HDL cholesterol.

Weight Loss Study Conclusions
This weight loss program with a VLCD enabled obese subjects to lose weight and decrease cardiovascular risks. Despite some regain in weight during follow-up, the beneficial effects were overall maintained over the year. Sodium intake tended to increase during follow-up. Information on sodium restriction should be included in weight loss programs.

Source: Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Hospital, Finland.

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